What are groups?

Groups (which are also called families) are the vertical strips of the periodic table.


Alkali Metals

On the far left of the periodic table are the Alkali Metals (not including hydrogen). These metals are the most reactive and electropositive.

This photo is from chem4kids


  • Sodium- Used in soap
  • Potassium – Used in fireworks

Fun fact

They each have one electron

Alkaline Earth Metals

This is the second group. And as you start to move to the right on the periodic table, the elements start to become less reactive.

This photo is from chem4kids


  • Calcium- used for nutrition
  • Beryllium- used in X-ray tubes (instead of glass)

Fun Fact

These have two electrons

Transition Metals

The big rectangle right in the middle of the periodic table (groups 3-12). Some of the chateristics that it has is that they are:

  • malleable
  • ductile


  • Silver- used in coins
  • Iron- used to make steel
  • Copper- used in electrical wires

Halogen Gasses

And the second to last of the groups is the Halogen Gasses. Some of the characteristics that they have is that they are not that reactive and also they also have both low melting and boiling points.

All of them are one electron short of having a perfect s-p orbital


  • Clorine- it is used for medicine